The country has been called by various names over the period of time, the most influential name is “Bharat” Todays it is called India. India has been centre of anything and everything since ages. Roots of value and culture even deepen in to the holy books such as Ram Charit Manas, Bhagwat Gita, Vedas, Purana etc.

India is a wide country with second largest population and seventh largest land area in the world. The population of India is more than 1.2 billion.

There are 29 states mainly on the basis of semantic lines. There is  Several religions originated from India such as HinduismBuddhismSikhism and  Christianity and other religions also found its place in India. New Delhi is the Capital city of India. The other metro cities are Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai. The other major cities are Bangalore, Mysore, Chandigarh, Raipur, etc. India is the world’s largest democratic and secular country. India got independence August 15, 1947. My country has produced warrior like Maha Ran Pratap and Shivaji and leasers like Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel and freedom fighters like Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bagat Singh and Lala Lajpet Ray. 

Our country is a land of villages and fields laden with corps. We proud of her village’s from where the Indians civilization has blossomed forth. Most of the great leaders of our country came from the villages. Our fields are fed by the mighty rivers like the Ganges, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Narmada, Krishna and Kavery. The Gangetic Valley is the most fertile regions of our land. Ours is a secular state. In her lap breathe the happy followers of the various religions of the world. We have a unique culture which has devolved through the centuries. There is much diversity among our people. We speak many languages, worship many gods and yet we have the same spirit, the spirit of India, running through all parts of our country binding us together. We have great unity in diversity.

There are different Regions of India:

North Region: The Himalayas which is the highest mountain in the world. This region also consists of the beautiful Kashmir covered with mountains. North region also consists of one of the wonders of the world i.e. Taj Mahal which people come to visit across the world.

East Region:
East Region consists of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal etc. The capital of West Bengal, Kolkata is the largest city of this section and is the metropolitan city and is the third’s largest city of the country.

West Region: The Western Region of the country is really incredible as it is covered with sands and deserts. The culture, the language, the traditions and the clothes of this region are incredible and you will love to visit this region.

Southern Region: Southern region is famous for its festivals, food, and languages. The place is famous for its rice dishes. This region consists of cities like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka etc.

Indian Economy  :-

After independence 15th August 1947, India opted for planned economic development. The key concern was to develop thrust and heavy industries. With this there began rapid industrialization. Here, it is important to note that our economic policies were socially oriented and controlled by the state. India began to follow a mixed economy pattern. But in the late eighties and in the beginning of the 1990s, the Indian policy makers realized that state controlled economy was not able to produce desired results in almost 45 years. It was decided to pursue economic policy based on liberalization, privatization and globalization.

India and their contribution in the world:-
  1. India added ‘ZERO’ in Maths
  2. India added ‘DECIMAL SYSTEM’
  4. India starts ‘FABBONACCI NUMBERS’
  5. India starts ‘BINARY NUMBER’
  6. CHAKRAVALA method of algorithm

Invention in science and technology is very important for the growth of any country, India has a rich heritage of science and technology. The dependence on nature could be overcome by developments in science. In ancient India, religion and science worked in close proximity. Let us find out about the developments in the different branches of science in the ancient period.


Astronomy made great progress. Aryabhatta deviated from Vedic astronomy and gave it a scientific outlook which became a guideline for later astronomers. Astrology and horoscope were studied in ancient India. Aryabhatta’s theories showed a distinct departure from astrology which stressed more on beliefs than scientific explorations.


The town planning of Harappa shows that the people possessed a good knowledge of measurement and geometry. By third century AD mathematics developed as a separate stream of study. Indian mathematics is supposed to have originated from the Sulvasutras. It’s a great achievement for Indians.


Medicine is the most important topic so,Diseases, cure and medicines were mentioned for the first time in the Atharva Veda. Fever, cough, consumption, diarrhoea, dropsy, sores, leprosy and seizure are the diseases mentioned.


As if we know that the constant interaction between man and nature forced people to study geography. Though the people were clear about their own physical geography, that of China and also the Western countries, they were unaware of their position on the earth and the distances with other countries.


Let’s starts about of Modern Development , In India the role of science and technology in national development has been duly recognised by the government. Similarly State Councils of Science and Technology have also been established at the state levels. As part of the national policy, the government is promoting various research and development schemes to encourage scientific activities. In this section, we will take up some of the main areas in which scientific knowledge and modem technology have made an impact.


It is mainly because of the application of modern science and technology in agriculture that India is able to produce 135 million tonnes of foodgrains today as compared to 50 million tonnes thirty years ago.

Nuclear Energy

We proud to say that As a result, India is today one of the few countries in the world which can indigenously design, construct and operate nuclear reactors without relying on foreign help. Besides nuclear sciences, research and development work in fields such as electronics, medicine, biology, agriculture, metallurgy is also being done at some nuclear centres.

Space Technology

The Indian space programme is directed towards the goal of self-reliance in the use of space technology for national development. Over the years, the space programme has established itself with a succession of achievements.

Other Areas

Meanwhile we reach at that point Apart from the major areas mentioned above, India has made much progress in several other fields as well. These include the activities of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission in oil exploration and refining and of the National Committee Environment Planning in environment protection and production of solar energy. A Central Ganga Aurthority has been set up to check pollution in the river Ganga by using sewage treatment plants.

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